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PDF Download. El testamento del pescador PDF Online. El umbral de la gloria PDF Online. Entre mujeres PDF Download. Envuelto para regalo PDF Download. A ambos lados del codo se ven huecos para dos teselas. La vista frontal inferior Fig. En ambas existen rebabas internas. Hispania romana. LOZA, M. Este hecho permite deducir que el collar colgaba sobre el pecho, no alrededor del cuello. El torques de Cerro de la Miranda fue un hallazgo fortuito durante las labores realizadas en un pozo en las inmediaciones de la ciudad de Palencia.

Grosor: 1,,7 cm.

LOS CRISÓPIDOS DE LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA Y BALEARES (INSECTA, NEUROPTERIDA, NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE)

II-I a. Su peso es de 9. Este bronce es el tercero de los excavados en este yacimiento. Grosor: 0,,6 cm aprox. Vista general incompleta de la plancha. Imagen de algunos signos en el material de base y en el degradado. Diversos defectos en una zona cercana al borde. Otros defectos en una zona cercana al borde. Cuatro de estos taladros conservan los remaches y los otros dos los han perdido. Se apoya en la pierna derecha que avanza mientras el pie izquierdo se retrasa levemente en un gesto de abandono.

Su cabeza imberbe, ligeramente inclinada, gira del lado de la pierna portante. Imagen de la cabeza de la escultura. Antebrazo y mano derecha de la escultura. Diversos defectos en la zona del torso. Detalle de uno de los hombros. En el presente caso Fig. De ella parten fisuras de trayectoria transversal. La siguiente imagen corresponde al antebrazo y a la mano derecha Fig. Uno de los costados menores muestra el cierre que sujeta la tapa superior deslizante.

La figura 3 es la imagen de la tapa deslizante. Hispania Antiqua. Escasos poros distribuidos aleatoriamente. En las enjutas, dos putti enfrentados portan en sus manos un tejido y flores. Otro personaje masculino un funcionario recoge de manos del personaje central un documento de nombramiento un codicillum o un liber mandatorum. A su alrededor se distinguen espigas y personajes infantiles alados que portan flores y cestos. Fue un hallazgo fortuito, el 25 agosto de en una tierra de labor, junto con otras tres piezas hoy desaparecidas.

Se encontraba doblada por la mitad para ser probablemente fundida. Peso: El Disco de Teodosio, Madrid, Este hecho indica que dicho cementerio tuvo un uso continuado y dilatado en el tiempo. Peso: ,4 g S. Vista constitutiva del conjunto del broche. Detalle de la anilla. Junto al remache central aparece un motivo inciso cruciforme. En la anilla de la hebilla Fig. En lo que corresponde a la placa decorada Fig.

Esta propiedad permanece hasta la Guerra Civil de , fecha en la que se pierde su pista. Peso: 1. Detalles en uno de los vaceos. La espiga de la hoja tiene aspecto piramidal truncado Fig. Los colores que predominan en el esmalte son el naranja, el verde y el morado sobre un fondo azul muy vivo. Esta obra, conocida popularmente como el Ajedrez de Carlomagno, procede del taller de Montpellier por la marca que aparece en uno de los laterales del marco: MOP. Mediados del s. Detalle de otra de las reliquias. Detalle de conjunto de una de las casillas.

Vista oblicua en la que se aprecia el sistema constructivo. En una se trataba de averiguar el contenido de las casillas y en la otra el trabajo del metal. Las chapas perimetrales externas se fijan del mismo modo con clavos de mayor longitud. El casquete se decora con dos frisos lisos, uno en la parte superior y otro en la inferior, que contienen inscripciones arabescas damasquinadas en plata sobre fondo dorado.

Este apodo se debe a que fue el responsable del asedio —durante un mes y medio— y posterior toma de Constantinopla, capital del Imperio Romano de Oriente o Imperio Bizantino, el 29 de mayo de Peso: 2. XV Sistema constructivo del remate del casco y defectos inducidos.

Dos de los remaches y un grupo de fisuras. Vista cenital desde el interior. En la vista cenital del casco Fig. En el extremo inferior del casco, a derecha e izquierda, se ven dos grupos de dos remaches cada uno, y cada remache con una arandela; asimismo, se aprecia un grupo de fisuras producto del conformado por batido del casco Fig. Splendour of the Medieval Mediterranean. En la pared del fondo se concentran esbozados otros asistentes a la ceremonia, y sobre ellos una ventana deja pasar la luz del sol que incide sobre los protagonistas.

XIX ca. Aspecto de los toques de empaste. Este soporte ha sido reforzado, en un momento posterior, con un engatillado de madera que se manifiesta como un cuadriculado uniforme. Se manifiestan en la imagen de diferentes maneras, dependiendo de que haya quedado su hueco o de que hayan quedado ocluidos. Este tipo de imagen no se debe confundir con la producida por diferencias de espesor creadas en el conformado. No se debe confundir con el efecto producido por motivos decorativos incisos labrados superficialmente. Fisuras Discontinuidad bidimensional producida por rotura del material.

Inclusiones de arena, de sulfuros, etc. No se debe confundir con la imagen mostrada por. Muchas veces los contornos de las pegaduras son identificables a simple vista. Rebabas Defecto que se manifiesta ya a simple vista, sobre todo en piezas fundidas con molde bivalvo en las que la superficie no ha sido convenientemente trabajada.

Rellenado En el moldeo de piezas de determinado volumen, a veces en superficie quedaban oquedades que se rellenaban calentado el material de base y vertiendo en la zona a rellenar metal fundido cuyo excedente posteriormente se eliminaba. Cartagena A Badajoz A Museo Numantino. Soria A Museo de Burgos A Madrid A Museo de Santa Cruz. Toledo A Sevilla A Cubas de la Sagra A Ayuntamiento de Valencia A Toledo D Madrid D Placa visigoda.

Madrid D Cartagena D Puente Genil. Mula Murcia. Tumba 2. Guadalajara Helechosa de los Montes Jordania Navarra Valladolid Madrid Alicante Uncastillo Zaragoza Toledo Zaragoza Isla de La Palma Sevilla Albacete Siria Museo de Albacete Badajoz Iglesia Colegial. Arcas del Villar. Sobre un fragmento de escultura monumental romana de bronce de Lucentum, Alicante, Applied X-Rays, Nueva York, Radiation in Art and Archeometry, Amsterdam, Scientific investigations of works of art, Roma, Ciencia, pensamiento, cultura, vol.

Ciencia, pensamiento y cultura, Madrid, Digital image processing, Addison-Wesley Publishing company Inc, LANG, J. Radiography of Cultural Material, Londres, Museo de Zaragoza 11 , , pp. Department General of Publications. Radiographic technique and behavioural protocol at the Institute of Cultural Heritage of Spain.

Catalogue of pieces and their radiographic interpretation. List of discontinuities in radiographic images of metal objects of historical-artistic value. Serving as example. So until now neither gold, nor silver, nor copper, nor iron has been found anywhere on earth that is produced in such vast amounts nor with such high quality. Two millennia later, science and technology are capable of extracting extremely valuable information about those objects and works of art crafted with care by artisans, which have survived until today, and they are on display in many of our museums.

This is the goal of this publication: to return to the past the splendour of the metallurgical activity for which our land was admired. To accomplish this, we have had to bring together experts from two institutions with a longstanding tradition in studying metals to join forces. The outcome of this outstanding collaboration —forged decades ago— is this publication, so often dreamed of by its authors.

In short, science and history fuse to create a study that aims to make an in-depth examination of metal cultural assets from an extremely enriching interdisciplinary vantage point. In these days when technology is adapted and applied at breakneck speed in the diagnosis, knowledge and conservation of the cultural assets that are part of our heritage, the IPCE always focuses on the commitment that conserving our historical and artistic heritage must cross borders.

Nor should we forget that unfortunately there are very few publications, especially in Spanish, revolving around studies of such a fascinating patrimony as metal objects, especially from such a technical standpoint. Thus, with this publication we also aim to cover an incomprehensible void. Finally, the IPCE has a steadfast commitment to disseminating and spreading the word about the results of its studies; for this reason, a concerted effort has been made to publish this work in a bilingual Spanish-English edition.

For all of these reasons, we believe that this publication is actually a wonderful opportunity for laypeople who would like to learn more about the fascinating world of X-ray techniques, as well as for people who would like to gain more in-depth knowledge about a technique which, though traditional, offers an inexhaustible source of knowledge.

It is worth noting that there are virtually no publications on the subject of X-raying metals from our cultural heritage; there are hardly any reports on them in Spain and very few internationally. At that time, in addition to getting the radiological documents and their interpretation, the staff members of both requesting organisations were taught these techniques. The outcome of this ongoing collaboration with IPCE has been not just X-ray studies but also the publication of numerous studies and the delivery of papers at diverse national and international congresses by staff from both organisations.

The study in this book is the result of arduous professional efforts that demonstrate the potential of joining technology with art. Although we had adequate X-ray equipment available to us for working at high voltages, and therefore for radiographs of metals, it could not be used as we did not have adequate premises. The restorers explained to us that they had had sporadic collaboration with the National Centre of Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC and they told us of the quality of the professionals who were at that institution, and this inspired us to go to its Director and request assistance.

Area of Laboratories. Physical Studies Department. However, its value is even further enhanced by the selection of a set of pieces that largely cover the entire period spanning from the Late Atlantic Bronze Age to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. We have also decided that this study should include all the prehistoric and historic metals; for this reason, it includes pieces made of gold, silver, copper-based materials which are obviously the majority and iron objects.

We could have chosen much more spectacular pieces although some of the ones examined here are truly amazing , but we preferred not only to choose items made of different metals, but for them to have been manufactured using a variety of procedures which are clearly characteristic of each period. Thus, sacrificing the spectacularness or beauty of the object is offset by the interest inherent in the broad technical value contained in the variety of pieces examined in this book, which is what will be of the most interest to both restorers or conservators and researchers.

Yet the technical facet of this publication is not the only one that matters, even though it does fill a huge void in studies on our cultural heritage. Rather this book also showcases aspects related to the methodology, interdisciplinary studies and organisation that the IPCE uses for this purpose. Everything presented in this book can serve as a guideline for other organisations and institutions part of whose efforts revolve around conserving and restoring metallic objects with historical value to yield better planning and results of these efforts, as for years the IPCE has demonstrated the validity and solid method of its action protocols in these analyses and studies.

For this study, the latter has provided the radiographic interpretation of these items for which it needed to ascertain the materials and process of obtaining each piece within its timeframe and cultural context. Thanks to this advanced view, radiographs of a large variety of metal objects exist at the bottom of a radiographic archive at the IPCE. The collective group of restorers and archaeologists has been very important in the shaping of this archive, being one of the first to appreciate the importance that radiography has in the study of the pieces that were appearing in their excavations.

With this technique, signs can be detected that provide links to the manufacturing processes, types of welding, discontinuity in the tapping, etc. The radiographic documents obtained on metal parts, whose decor is covered by layers of surface corrosion, are usually spectacular as well as illustrative. The decoration on the plate remains clear with greater or lesser intensity. This depends, on the one hand, on the different absorption of material from the base of the plate and of the decoration, on the other hand, of the depth of the incision.

It may occur that, although an image is clearly determined on the radiograph, if that image is darker than its environment, the incision must be for a decorative reason, which can sometimes be demonstrated following cleaning. In order to recognise them they must be cleaned so that these deposits, which can occasionally triple the size of a piece, are eliminated. This is the reason why the restorers, since the founding of the Institute,.

With radiography, the case has been put forward that, were it to discover that no valuable archaeological piece existed underneath some sediments —and that what was detected was a bottle top—, then this would save the restorer a fruitless task. On the other hand, it is always interesting to know the state of conservation of a Cultural Asset.

These restorations, in many cases unnoticed by the non-specialist public, do not escape detection by the restorer who, on visual inspection, notices a series of signs which give him to understand that the piece is reconstructed. In summary, this technique informs us of its internal condition, invisible deterioration, possible restorations and assists in telling apart the different materials which make up this object.

It is very important to emphasise that this technique does not classify materials —another kind of analysis is needed to do this. Another group is made up of those pieces in which the metal is an additional part of the Cultural Asset; an example would be an easel painting over a metal support. This pictorial procedure has been used during different eras; Francisco de Goya is an example. In their eagerness to research, contemporary painters used metal as a whole or a part of their work, which has come to be known as mixed technique.

According to what has been concluded, the object which is not allowed to be x-rayed is rare, and therefore dealing with the analysis and study of radiographic documents is hugely complicated. In view of the above, importance can be placed —at the time of evaluating a radiograph— on having the best information possible, especially that referring to procedure, or to the way in which the radiographic technique has been applied.

The study request record examines the record number of the IPCE and the administrative information provided by the requesting body: name of the piece and inventory number, information on the nature of the object, attribution, dating, nature of material if there are previous analytical results , measurements, weight, etc. Once the previous information is known it is passed to the execution phase of the radiograph.

Image of the Request file to Laboratories. Image of an update report. Their introduction into these studies occurred almost at the same time of their discovery. In , W. The high temperature of the tube forced them to have very short exposure times, which seemed to be the main problem.

It was resolved by Coolidge, in , when he invented the air-cooled hot anode tube. One year later, in , Faber began to use this technique more systematically on works of art, so that it slowly began to be introduced into the cultural environment until the present day. Since that time, it has advanced considerably. In the case at hand, the IPCE, conscious of the importance of this technique, relied on a radioactive installation in the s, following its creation.

It consisted of three pieces of X-ray generating equipment: one transportable, for medical use, and two industrial. This equipment was in operation until just a few years ago, when it was replaced with other more modern units. The alternative to X-rays was achieved with the discovery of radiation, which began to be used for industrial purposes in the United States in the s. Its use is only advisable on Cultural Assets in order to analyse very absorbent objects, either due to their greater thicknesses or the constituent material.

The IPCE does not have equipment with radioisotope sources; if they need them on a case by case basis, they go to other institutions so that the radiographs can be made. This analysis does not need to collect samples and the document obtained allows us to see the different objects, telling us about its execution technique and its state of conservation. The greater its wavelength, the smaller its corpuscular effect will be. It must also be remembered, that analysis of the electromagnetic spectrum establishes the relative position in frequencies or in wavelengths between the so-called visible light and the rest of the radiation most used in the techniques applied to the study of the Cultural Assets; in decreasing order of their wavelength, they are: infra-red, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays and g gamma radiation the latter overlap in different areas, but the g rays are those which can have greater energy.

It is important to know that a divisive line cannot be set up between each of these radiations, given that each one of them is superimposed onto its adjacent one. Of all these properties, radiography is based on those which, as has been commented previously, are capable of crossing through bodies; penetration depends on their frequency and on the nature of the materials being penetrated. To make this easier to understand, it could be said that the process is similar to traditional pho.

To do this, the different phases of the process would be: irradiation illumination of the object in the case of photography , capture printing of the negative or capture by digital camera and processing of the image by developing or by transfer of the data to a computer. At the time of deciding whether to use one or another, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of each. This property allows us to obtain contrasting images. The physical characteristics of the system remain constant throughout the whole time, in order to understand them better: the tube does not wear out.

It must be handled by personnel duly authorised by the Nuclear Safety Council. With the necessary safety measures, their effects are easily controllable. They can be compared with a bulb —when turned off with a switch, the light goes out; in the case of X-rays the equipment stops emitting. Economically, they are very costly. They are very heavy, given that, with the exception of the area called the window, where Figure 4. Graph that specifies wavelengths corresponding to each spectrum.

Their activity varies regarding their half life. The sources most used for radiography Tm, Ir, 60 Co, etc. They present good results with objects of a high atomic number and thickness. The equipment is not very heavy, of reduced size and easily handled, which means it can be inserted into tight spaces. Just as for the X-ray generating equipment, they must be handled by personnel duly authorised by the Nuclear Safety Council.

Unlike the X-ray equipment, it emits continuously, therefore as protection, the sources are hermetically sealed and the containers have a safety lock which is operated in order to open the container when the exposure is going to be affected. Its handling is a little bit more delicate owing to its small size and to the fact that, unlike X-rays, it does not cease to emit, therefore they must be used so that there is no possibility of losses or leaks of radiation, due to insufficient leaktightness, that can irradiate towards people.

Finally, its financial cost is low compared with the X-ray equipment. The decision on whether to use X-rays or g rays as a source, depends on the characteristics of the object to be studied. In the rest of the cases, the experience acquired at the IPCE has stated that it is more appropriate to use X-ray equipment. Films are very similar to photographs, with printing and development processes similar to both, therefore we are not going to describe them. Those which are usually used in the IPCE are those of type 2 or G3 with which good results are achieved with smaller radiation doses.

The reels can have a length of up to 60m and a width of up to 40cm. In order to use the rolls format select the length needed by cutting and sealing the entrance with tape so as light cannot get inside. As it is a metal with a high atomic number, the incident beam, depending on its energy, produces photoelectrons and comptom electrons.

Although it seems obvious, experience tells us that using a red laboratory bulb is not the same thing as using a bulb painted red. The process may be manual in a tray or automatic in a processor. With plates of small size, either manual or automatic can be used, but with large formats automatic should be used. The apparatus used to measure this factor is known as a densitometer. The value may vary between 0, for a completely white area and 4. The equipment used for viewing is known as a negatoscope, with the commercial ones having a larger format than those used in medicine for studying images of the vertebral column, therefore the institutions who are normally dedicated to radiography of Cultural Assets usually build their own negatoscopes with formats of greater size which allow the complete work to be viewed and reproduced.

Until very recent times —discarding the previously mentioned duplicates— the only method of reproduction was by using a conventional photograph. Usually, a general shot is taken and, if the work is of a large size, several are made which are joined later. On the one hand, in order to provide broad information, as many details of the areas of interest are taken as needed.

More recently, with the appearance of the transparency scanner, they have also started to use these machines but only for radiographs whose format does not exceed size DIN A Any of these machines are capable of obtaining p. As far as the document obtained is concerned, its quality depends on the characteristics of the machine, on the quality of its detector and the range of optical density, which is usually under 3.

Today there are systems which allow us to scan rolls continuously with good resolution and a range of optical density that can reach 4. The camera is placed at an adequate distance, opposite the upper left part of the radiograph and it is photographed in parts, overlapping a small space. Reproduction of the digital documents obtained is carried out with regard to the needs of each case: reference for report, detailed study, diffusion, etc. They can be printed with commercial machines already on the market or, if photographic quality is needed, give the reproduction job to specialised companies that use a digital-chemical method.

Once the Cultural Asset is in the laboratory, it is observed at length before carrying out the analysis. The documentation that has previously been collected is examined and, with all of this, the way to proceed.

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This of course forms part of a research project, and is carried out in accordance with protocol established at the beginning of the project. Clarification must be given that the X-rays are covered by a layer of lead of greater or lesser thickness according to the maximum power that can be reached, except for an output hole that shows the name of the window. In the inside of the tube a vacuum has to be made therefore this window must have a hermetic seal.

This is achieved with different materials: beryllium, due to its low atomic number, is the most adequate for the equipment that will be used with artistic objects. On the size of the focus transmitter; this is not precise and, although ideally it should be so, it can produce an effect known as penumbra that can manifest itself as a light diffusion on the edges of the object image. The more marked the diffusion, the more separated the film will be from the object.

Although for flat objects or in the areas of the figures that are in contact with the plate, the object and image can be thought to be of equal size, it must not be forgotten that the image obtained is a conical projection of the real image. On the electron acceleration voltage the kilovoltage and current intensity in the argot named milliamperage. So that this can be easily understood, it can be described by saying that the first one is responsible for crossing the object and arriving at the film. As far as the second is concerned, it is responsible for the blackening of the aforementioned film.

On the distance between the object and the Xray equipment; this will vary in a way that is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. There is a minimum focus-film distance below which, due to the effect of penumbra, the radiograph cannot be carried out. On the location of the focus transmitter with respect to the object, given that, as the X-rays are propagated in a straight line, the projection of the object will vary with respect to the inclination of the beam, therefore the detection of the cause will depend on adequate orientation.

On the separation between the film and the object; the better the contact the better the definition will be achieved. On the intensification or attenuation produced by the elements interposed between the focus transmitter and the film, such as the reinforcing screens, the material making up the window and the possible filters located on the aforementioned window. Usually, the air absorption is disregarded, how. On the different materials that make up the object.

Taking into account all the previously mentioned aspects, begin the analysis. Place the equipment at the distance needed in order for the radiation beam to cover the object, with the focus directed towards the centre of the work, taking special care that the X-ray beam is perfectly perpendicular to the plane of interest. Then carry out the developing process. The process must be carried out under the same conditions.

Information which a radiograph can provide The radiograph of Cultural Assets provides broad information for historians, archaeologists, museum curators, restorers and, it could be said, any lover of the Fine Arts. It brings us closer to the techniques used for manufacturing objects, their constitution, cultural aspects etc.

On occasions —without characterising them— this technique helps to differentiate between the different materials which make up any metal object, etc. If the metal is one element more than the object it allows it to be differentiated from the rest of the components of the piece, given that they are usually the more radio-opaque elements; a very curious case is that of the corsets, in which it is possible to distinguish between the keratin stays and the metal ones.

As regards ancient restorations, your information is vital at the time of deciding the intervention to be carried out, even trying to differentiate the possible corrections made by the author during the creative process of the restorations per se. These reinstatements can clearly be highlighted as large black gaps low radiographic absorption and high photographic density , which stand out against the white that represents the areas with metal centre high radiographic absorption and low photographic density.

Continuing to contribute to the restoration, it highlights the discontinuities or defects that have occurred throughout time. It can also bring to light decorations or inscriptions hidden by the deterioration of the piece, not always recoverable during the restoration processes. Radiography allows us to observe the forge lines and slag alignments which occur on the stretched metallic mass. Figure 5. Levels of grey with respect to the object or type o film. The linearity of the edges can indicate mechanical preparation of the same prior to welding.

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Concluding Generally we have seen, as was commented at the beginning, that radiography is one of the most important non-destructive test procedures in studies prior to the restoration of any object, including historical ones. However, like all techniques it has its limitations and it must be made clear that it does not allow analysis of the chemical constituents of materials nor the dating of objects, although the experience of the radiologist who interprets the images obtained, an expert in materials, manufacturing procedures and the defectology that they might present, together with the visible image, can provide very enlightening information.

It should also be said that in spite of all the information that can be provided by any type of analysis, it can, by itself, provide partial information on the object. So that the information is as complete as possible, the results obtained through various analytical routes must be considered and jointly assessed with the historical-artistic study and visual inspection carried out previously. The objective is to get this image to offer as much information as possible with the best quality, given that it provides relevant information on the state of conservation of the piece, and its technical execution.

The IPCE, furthermore, forms part of Spanish Museum System3 , a network which tries to promote cooperation between museums and institutions assigned to matters related to the documentation, research, conservation and restoration of funds, as well as for cultural diffusion activities and advancing their personnel. Collaboration with these institutions has allowed the analysis of cultural assets which are part of their collections, through which the Physical Studies Section houses an enormous quantity of graphic documentation.

After all these years of intense work, and not just because of the amount of material generated, but also the speed of growth of the archive, it has been necessary to set out a large-scale remodelling which will attempt to bring the documentation management referred to previously up to date, with the present criteria.

The Deputy General Directorate of the General Directorate of Fine Arts and Cultural Assets of the Ministry of Culture, has assumed a series of functions, among which include: 0 — Conservation and restoration: produces and executes plans for the conservation and restoration of the movable and immovable goods integrated into the historical heritage without prejudice to the operations attributed to the Management of Infrastructures and Cultural Equipment, as well as cooperation with other public Administrations and public or private bodies for the development of said plans and their monitoring.

It also boosts and promotes Spanish archaeological research projects abroad. This progress will have an impact on the quality of attention-giving service to the public and will facilitate its diffusion in all the available resources of the present day. Once the present situation, it has been decided to commence with the organisation of the radiographic archive the most numerous of all the documentation generated in this laboratory , in order to continue immediately with the rest of the documentation corresponding to other developed techniques.

The format of the radiograph plates is very diverse, varying between 10 cm and 5 m in length and, as far as width goes, the grand majority of them are 3 cm, although this can vary between 10 and 40 cm. The radiographic pieces come from archives, libraries and museums of varying ownership4 , from ecclesiastical institutions and different public bodies5 from domestic sources. On several occasions, and in consideration of the budget of the project, radiographs have generally been taken on privately owned works for changing exhibitions.

The pace of increase in the radiographic collection during all these decades has been growing. In the last seven years, the number of requests have been added to the number of works appearing for update, the designated collections, and the increasing tendency to carry out large format works, altarpieces as well as surface pieces. Project OMRA optimisation and modernisation of the radiographic archive This project is trying to make the management of the documentation generated by the Physical Studies laboratory more dynamic, from its commencement always in relation to the radiographic archive.

These are kept in some blue folders, ordered by type of material paint, sculpture, metals, bones, etc. Modernisation phase of the storage space From the beginning, we have seen the need to reorder the radiographic archive, due to the increase in documents generated throughout the years and the access needs of the same. This has not been possible until the present time due to administrative problems.

Having taken advantage of an opportune time nowadays, it has been possible to carry out this project. During the conditioning works on the radiographic archive, now concluded, a detailed study was carried out on the space, with views taken on the acquisition of new shelving.

He goes to bed early but it takes him a long time to get to sleep. He was lying on the couch. He's an accredited representative of the French government.

La técnica radiográfica en los metales históricos (Español e inglés)

He's a doctor of good reputation. It's a solvent firm. His creditors are after him. There's been a lot of activity around the office this morning. In addition to his regular job, he has a lot of other activities. It was an act of courage. The ceremony took place in the afternoon. The third act is about to begin.

He did it right away. Present circumstances are unfavorable. Nowadays coffee is scarce. At the present time he's in Chicago. They rushed to his aid. He didn't keep his appointment. They came to an agreement. We're of the same opinion. I did it according to your instructions. They accused him of manslaughter. We acknowledge receipt of your letter. You have to pay in advance in that hotel. This boy surpasses the rest of the class. They went ahead of all the others. They were doing eighty kilometers and they passed us. Your watch gains time. Put your watch ahead; it's slow.

My watch is five minutes fast. His Spanish is improving little by little. I wanted to invite you, but your friend beat me to it. Go ahead. From now on we'll do it this way. You'll understand it later on. Farther on we came upon a house. Come in! This house has all the latest improvements. I don't want to go, and besides it's too late. Besides fruit we're going to have ice cream.

I'm going inside. I'll bet you can't guess what happened to me today. I'm amazed at his nerve. He admired his friend's work. They were amazed at his courage. He was admitted to the engineering school. Tips not accepted. He doesn't allow interruptions. You can't go where I'm going. Where are you going? They adopted a little girl. They've adopted a new plan. He assumed an air of great importance. The room's nicely fixed up for the party. The dress was trimmed with lace. They paid customs duties.

I noticed some mistakes in his report. I'm warning you not to do it again. I told you so. He has regard for all his office companions. I'm a great baseball fan. This is an amateur company. He's very fond of reading. He's become fond of sports. He's one of my in-laws. The loss of their mother grieved them very much. They grieved over their friend's misfortune. Loosen the bandage a little. Don't slacken in your work in war time. The storm let up. Let's go out. They live in the suburbs. Get out! Bend down; the ceiling's very low. Hold the rope tight. I caught an awful cold. She caught hold of my arm so she wouldn't fall.

He's agent for a big insurance company. The company's sent several representatives to discuss the matter.


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Ask the policeman where St. James Square is. He's quick in his movements. She has a very quick mind. Shake well before using. The politician stirred up the workers. When she heard it she got very excited. They ran through the inheritance. He's wearing himself out working so much. The edition went out of print quickly. The provisions gave out in a short time. I appreciate your kindness. I thanked him very much for his help.

They're going to enlarge their store. This makes the situation worse. The patient got worse. We saw the military attache of the American Embassy. You have to add more details to the report. He wants a glass of cold water. We're having a rainy spell. You're right, that's as clear as crystal. Man overboard! Last night's storm washed out the road.

You have butterfingers. Don't be a wet blanket. It's amazing how much he can stand. This is unbearable. Hang on tight! You have to take it. We expect him tomorrow at ten o'clock. I've been waiting for you for hours. The knife had a very sharp point. He's a very clever boy. She has a very high-pitched voice. He's always making such witty remarks! The two streets form an acute angle. What would you like after dinner — coffee, tea, or mint water?

Do you have a needle to sew on these buttons? One of the hands has fallen off my watch. The train's passed the switch. Sharpen the end of the stick a little. He pricked up his ears. There's your friend. What have you got there in your pocket? That way, please. Your hat's somewhere around here. Hello there, what's new? He tried to choke him. Many animals were drowned in the flood. This room's so small and hot that I'm suffocating. I'm going home now.

Now, what do you think? Now then, let's get this problem cleared up. Do it right away. He just left. We'll do it this way from now on. Up to now we've never had this problem. We have enough food for the present. They hanged him the same day. We're going to see him right now. How much have we saved this month? The air in this room's very stuffy. There's a very strong wind blowing.

He looks like a millionaire. He looked very tired. We spent three hours in the open air. Se da aires de persona importante. He puts on airs. Don't meddle in other people's affairs.

Spanish and English Legal Dictionary | Offer And Acceptance | Prosecutor

He started swearing. You have to tighten those screws. This cover doesn't fit. They met to decide peace terms. Let's settle accounts. He lifted the trunk to show off his strength. The sleeves of this coat have to be lengthened. Would you hand me the suitcase, please? The children are making a lot of noise. He's always short of money. They caught up with us quickly. I can't reach that can of tomatoes. He reached the rank of general. From here I can't see it. The flowers will brighten up the table. I'm very glad to see you. Why are you so happy today?

They're very cheerful people. What a bright-colored suit that is! He's a little tipsy. He showed great joy when he saw him. He was ill, but today he's all right. She needs a little cheering up. Encourage him to do it. Have you something to tell me? It seems rather expensive to me. Have you got some money? You must have a reason for telling me. I don't know whether this'll be of any use to you. Somebody's knocking at the door. Has anybody come? I hope you'll come again some day. I want to ask you some questions.

Do you want to ask me any questions? Do you need anything else? He visits us now and then. Some people have no patience. He was out of breath when he got here. Es una persona de muchos alientos. He's a very energetic person. We have to lighten the load. Hurry up, it's late. This food's not nourishing enough. He enlisted in the Foreign Legion. We'd better get ready early because the train won't wait. There it is! He's up there waiting for you. Your friends are in there. Let's go that way. The village is beyond those trees.

I saw 'em over there a while ago. Put it over there. His house is there on the right. She lives far from there. From there one could see perfectly. He says we should go that way. It's a town of people. My dear child! Lo siento en el alma. I'm terribly sorry. Lo voy a consultar con la almohada. I'm going to sleep on it i. They rented a house. Rooms for rent. They were sitting around the table. It cost about thirty pesos.


  • A TALE OF TWO FOOTBALL TOWNS & MILLWALL F.C. PT 6.
  • Table of Abbreviations, Sources, and Copyright Acknowledgments;
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  • We have to make some changes in our plans. He showed signs of great emotion. There were disorders all over the country. His coming changed our lives completely. Don't get excited; it's nothing. What's that very tall building? He talked to a high official of the Treasury Department. Prices are very high in this store. Don't talk so loud. He returned very late at night. They live in the upper story of that house. The house is on top of the hill. We've overlooked many important facts. We stopped along the way to have lunch. The soldiers halted at the entrance to the town. I don't feel well at such a high altitude.

    The lighting's poor in this part of the city. The street lamps don't give enough light. Can you light the way?

    He didn't raise his eyes from the book. They revolted against the government. He stole the money. In the summer it dawns earlier than in the winter. That guy's very embittered. He makes life miserable for everyone around him. He couldn't stand the bitterness of the coffee. His misfortunes caused him great bitterness. They soon became friends. He made friends with John. He got acquainted there in a short time. We talked with the owner of the house. Don't tell the boss. He likes to talk of love. He's found a new love.

    Yes, darling. He has too much pride. He was peeved by what you said. I want an enlargement of this photograph. They furnished the house very luxuriously. Do you think the road's wide enough for cars? This suit's too big for me. What's the width of the material? We took a long hike up to the summit. You're a great gadabout, my boy.

    It's too far to walk. The train began to move. Is that clock going? I've been chasing around all day. He didn't win the prize, but he came close to it. The child's going on seven. Move on! Go on! The jockey fell right by the rail. The liveliness of the gathering surprised me. Don't be a jackass! Let's encourage the players. His arrival pepped up the party. I'm urging him to come with us. He was in good spirits. She cheered him up because he was depressed. It gets dark at five now. I'm anxious to meet her. The year before last we went to Europe. I told you that before. This street used to have another name.

    Let's eat before we go. They left before we arrived. Above all, don't forget to write me. He lent me 30 pesos. They advanced the date of the party. They arrived half an hour early. He got ahead of me. She likes to dress in an old-fashioned way. She does whatever comes into her mind. Lo hago porque se me antoja. I do it because I take a notion to. Happy New Year. I'm twenty years old. Put out the light. The lights went out. He was surprised by the sudden appearance of his friend.

    That's a separate question. Put this package aside. Don't get off while the vehicle's in motion. They were grieved by the illness of their aunt. We were worried because we weren't getting any news. He can hardly walk. Let me know as soon as he comes. He got very depressed after his failure. They crushed all resistance. They flattened his nose. They flattened themselves against the wall.

    The dramatic work of Fernández Mazas

    He's very studious. They put a coat of paint on the chair. How much do you bet? I bet I get there before you. Rest your foot on that step. No one supported his motion. I second the motion. He's leaning on a cane. I have great respect for him. Don't walk so fast; we'll get there on time. Please hurry; we're late already. Tighten this screw. This collar's too tight. He pressed down on the suitcase to close it.

    He gripped my hand. The runner sprinted on the last lap. There was such a crowd that nobody saw anything. He does everything very quickly. I don't approve of his conduct. Did you pass your math exam? The boss had to advance him some money. She made use of all the left-overs. Don't let him take advantage of you. Don't go too near the fire. You're aiming too low to hit the target. Jot it down in your notebook. They drained their glasses. The situation worries me very much.