The increasingly powerful state of Hungary began to cast covetous glances at what we call Bosnia-Hercegovina during the 12th century, but before anything could be resolved in a definite way, the Turks invaded in , introducing a new element in the already contentious ethnic mix, the Muslim faith, scholars tell us.
It is worth noting at this time that very few real Turks settled in the area while it was part of the Turkish empire. Most of those who became Muslim, were local converts to the faith. As the people moved from the troubles that marked the Middle Ages toward the period identified as the Renaissance, the old problems were carried over in a new way: the local nobles in the 16th century decided to choose Islam over Roman Catholicism. Of course, many of their supporters followed suit.
The group was motivated not only by a desire to save their holdings and their power, but also because they were Bogomils and as such still harbored strong feelings against anything Roman. Austria-Hungary felt in that changes were necessary, but neither member of the coalition was willing to grant autonomy to the region or to allow the area to send delegates to its governing assembly or to the other's assembly.
As a compromise, Bosnia-Hercegovina was granted a new constitution that bore a glaring defect that still haunts the area and Europe today. It shoved the voters into three separate electoral colleges, giving proportional representation to the three major religious groups -- the Orthodox Catholics, the Roman Catholics and the Muslims.
Timeline of the s, Last Hurrah of the 20th-Century
This division, today, still provides rough edges as the citizens bump into each other trying to find ways to get along without conflict. Bosnia-Hercegovina is the most ethnically diverse of the area's republics, according to census figures. Consider that one-third of the country's residents are Muslim, one-third are Serbs and one-fifth are Croats. With those figures in mind, it is easy to see why the region has historically been ravaged by warfare. Most European schoolchildren are familiar with the story of how the assassination of archduke Ferdinand and his consort, the Duchess of Hohenberg, on June 28, in Sarajevo launched World War I.
The Balkan Crisis: A brief history
The gunman, Gavrilo Princip was a Bosnian Serbian student who was an active member of the Mlada Bosna, group which had been formed among university and secondary school students to advance revolutionary ideas which, the group hoped, would lead to independence. The German war machine in discovered it had a vulnerable southern flank and when Hitler was overcome by events and forced to send German troops into the Balkans, he found himself in a battle he could not win. The partisans, using their determination generated by pre-war moves toward independence and the geography of the area which took away any advantage of the better-trained and equipped German troops, managed successfully to harass the forces of the Third Reich to the point of distraction until the war could be successfully ended and a new country, Yugoslavia, established.
The disintegration of Yugoslavia as the Cold War was winding down, resulted from a breakdown of the nation-building of Marshal Josip Broz Tito, the wartime guerrilla leader who ruled Yugoslavia from until his death in Tito was dedicated to a global communist ideal that transcended individual ethnic nationalism. He also shrewdly recognized the threat to Yugoslavian unity posed by a strong Serbia, the largest of the country's republics.
When piecing together post-World War II Yugoslavia, Tito deliberately divided Serbia into two non-contiguous provinces -- Vojvodina in the north and Kosovo in the south. The gerrymandering left one-third of the Serbian population outside their own province and an Albanian majority firmly in place. The collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe weakened the glue that had held together the diverse, mutually antagonistic ethnic groups of the former Soviet bloc. The Serbian desire for a reunified homeland manifested itself in a resurgent nationalistic movement.
As progressed, stories about the Web hit the media. Traffic was equivalent to shipping the entire collected works of Shakespeare every second. The technology was continually extended to cater for new needs. Security and tools for e-commerce were the most important features soon to be added.
An essential point was that the web should remain an open standard for all to use and that no-one should lock it up into a proprietary system. A new European partner for W3C was needed. In September , there were more than member organisations from around the world. Image: CERN.
- Enough Time (Stratum Series Book 2).
- The Structure of Investment Arbitration.
- A brief history of video game consoles from the early s to the late s | VentureBeat.
- A Brief History of Birth Control in the U.S. - Our Bodies Ourselves.
- Arms Wide Open: a Novella.
- Vasily and the Beast Gods.
- A Brief History of Electronic Dance Music (EDM)?
Where the Web was born. How the Web began. The Web extends. Google Spreadsheets acquired from 2Web Technologies, in is an Internet-based program allowing users to develop, update, and edit spreadsheets, and to share the data online.
1990s: The Good Decade
The spreadsheets can be saved in an HTML format. In , IBM, Google, and several universities joined forces to develop a server farm for research projects needing both fast processors and huge data sets. The universities immediately realized computer experiments can be done faster and for less money, if IBM and Google were supporting their research.
Since much of the research was focused on problems IBM and Google had interests in, they also benefitted from the arrangement. Many of its most innovative features focused on the needs of major businesses.
Then, Apple launched the ICloud , which focuses on storing more personal information photos, music, videos, etc. Also, during this year, Microsoft began advertising the Cloud on television, making the general public aware of its ability to store photos, or video, with easy access. A customer using a Public Cloud service can have three basic expectations.
First, customers rent the services, instead of purchasing hardware and software to accomplish the same goal. Second, the vendor is responsible for all the administration, maintenance, capacity planning, backups, and troubleshooting.
A Brief History of Citröen, Part 2: The 2CV - Designed in the 1930s, Built Until the 1990s!
And finally, for many business projects, it is simply faster and easier to use the Cloud. It comes with huge amounts of storage, the ability to handle multiple projects, and more availability to a variety of users, simultaneously. There are essentially two kinds of Public Clouds.
One serves individuals for personal use, and one serves businesses. Cloud Computing storage for personal use allows easy access and file sharing. Data stored on the Cloud, such as photographs and music, can be shared with friends using a smart phone or a friends laptop, while protecting personal data from loss and damage.
The services offered by the business Cloud are quite different, and fall into three basic categories of service:. By , Cloud Computing had developed its basic features, and security had become the primary focus.